The US Constitution (with Jeffersonian-Madisonian explanation of)


We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Note: Our Preamble is the explanation for the Constitution.

“WE THE PEOPLE” means We the individual citizen of these United States, in order to form a Union that is governed better than under the Articles of Confederation, establish Justice which begins fairness for all, ensure Domestic Tranquility by quelling rebellion or quarrels amongst the states, provide for the Common Defense by defending the United States and its peoples as a whole, promote the General Welfare which provides a general state of well being for the country, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our posterity by protecting the people against an oppressive government and loss of natural rights, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America 

 Article 1 The Legislative Branch

US Capitol Building
Panorama of the US Capitol building

Section 1

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Note: When our framers stated “All legislative powers belong to the Congress” they are saying that the Executive and Judicial branches have absolutely no power to legislate. The word “All” has not lost its meaning since 1787. It does not imply that the Executive or Judicial branches have some or even a little power in creating legislation. All means All.

Section 2

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

Note: As our House Representatives directly represent our citizens, they are the house of Congress which comprises the majority of our elected officials. You must be a duly qualified and registered voter in your state and district to be allowed to vote for your Representative.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Note: The requirements for running for the House of Representatives are as follows: you must be 25 or older, you must be a citizen of these United States for at least 7 years, and you must live in the State for which you are running in

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

Note: Our population census is to be performed every 10 years so that the amount of elected House Representatives can be made accordingly. As a way to expedite the end of slavery, the Framers agreed to count each slave as 3/5ths of a person towards the total population in each Representatives home district. This 3/5ths compromise kept power thru representative numbers out of the Souths control, which allowed the Federal Government to move forward towards the elimination of slavery. 

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

Note: When there is a vacancy of office due to death, retirement or any other reason, the State affected by the vacancy shall call for a special election to fill the vacancy.

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Note: The members of the House appoint the Speaker and all other officers of the House. The House of Representatives is the only body of government that has the power to impeach.

Section 3

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Note: All Senators are to be chosen by the State legislature of the State they will represent. This assured that the States  maintain control over Federal overreach and maintained accountability of the Senators to the States

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

Note: Explains the election cycle of our Senators so that we always maintain a minimum experience level

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

Note: Every Senator must be 30 years old or older, must be a citizen of these United States for 9 years, and must live in the State they are elected from.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Note: Judgement from the Senate can only remove a person from the office they hold. That judgement also confers that the person can not hold any other federal office. Once removed from office the individual is subject to be held accountable to law as any other civilian 

Section 4

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of choosing Senators.

Note: The State legislatures dictate the rules for holding elections (including the use of Voter ID). Congress has the power to make or alter any regulation set forth by the States except as to the place of choosing Senators, as they were chosen by the State legislatures  

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Note: The Framers believed that elected members of Congress should spend more time in their respective districts talking with their constituents, instead of being disconnected and staying in Washington DC all year

Section 5

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Note: Both Houses of Congress must be transparent and disclosing on all issues except those deemed secret for National Security reasons

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

Note: Congressmen from either the House or Senate chamber, can be arrested for inciting violence {breach of Peace}

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Senators and Representatives can not hold any federal civil office while in elected office.

Section 7

All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Note: All tax bills must originate in the House. Again our Framers were very specific to use the term “All”. The Senate can propose amendments to the revenue bill or concur with the revenue bill as with any other bill. 

*The ACA Healthcare bill originated in the Senate and the mandate was proposed as a “penalty” and absolutely not a tax. When the Constitutionality of the Bill was questioned, The Supreme Court determined that the “penalty” was indeed a tax, but never sent the Bill back to the House of Representatives to be voted on as a Tax. The Supreme Court rewrote the bill (unconstitutionally legislated) as a tax and opined that the Bill was indeed Constitutional. The public then accepted it as law.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

Note: Congress has the power to tax and collect those taxes to pay the Debt as well as providing for the National Defense and promoting the General Welfare of our country. This is the lead in to the following powers which enumerate both common defense (clauses 10-16) and General welfare (clauses 1-9 as well as 17) powers vested in the Congress.

Also refer to What the Constitution Means by “Duties, Imposts, and Excises”—and “Taxes” (Direct or Otherwise)

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

Note: The regulation of Commerce must carry the same meaning throughout the sentence- Chief Justice John Marshall  Gibbons vs Ogden 1824. This means that if the Federal Government cannot force a foreign nation to purchase or produce a certain product or amount of a product, it can not impose that regulation on Americans, American businesses or Indian Tribes. 

 Or stated more directly this clause means “A power, then, to impose such duties and imposts in regard to foreign nations and to prevent any on the trade between the States, was the only power granted” James Monroe 1822 

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

Note: Congress (the Legislative Branch) has the power to establish Immigration laws because “ALL” legislative powers are vested in the Congress. Refer to Section 9 clause 1.

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

Note: Congress set the value of our dollar on the Spanish dollar (which was based on gold and silver) and established that an ounce of gold and silver was uniform in worth from state to state.  

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

Note: Post Roads were only those roads necessary to carry mail between municipalities.  This, of course, was generally interpreted liberally, to include all public highways

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

Note: This allowed for the establishment of Patent Laws.

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

Note: There is no constitutional authorization for a standing Army. Our founders feared that a standing Army would be loyal to the government and used against American citizens. They allowed for the Army to be funded for a term of 2 years because that follows the election cycle of the House of Representatives.

To provide and maintain a Navy;

Note: Our framers allowed for a standing Navy to be maintained because it was much harder to raise a naval force to protect the nation. The Navy had to have ships built and ready to defend our shores from attack at all times.

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

Note: It is Congress’s responsibility to determine Uniform Code of Conduct and Military Justice.

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

Note: self explanatory

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

Note: Congress, because it could have no standing Army, was required to provide discipline, organization and arms to the Militia. It could also take part of that Militia into the federal Army as needed for the 2 year period that the Army is funded for. The States are required to appoint officers of the Militia and have sole authority in the training of the Militia according to discipline set forth by Congress. The Militia consisted of every able bodied man from 18-65. This put the power in the hands of the people instead of the Federal government.  

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;

Note: This clause spells out the only land that the Federal Government can take control over

 And To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Note: All Laws that are passed must only pertain to the aforementioned (foregoing)enumerated powers or any other listed power granted the federal government by the Constitution.  In Federalist 33, Alexander Hamilton states “acts of the [Federal Government] which are NOT PURSUANT to its constitutional powers are merely acts of usurpation, and will deserve to be treated as such”  

Section 9

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

Note: Many of the framers of our Constitution wanted to end slavery with the Constitution but knew a compromise had to be made in order to get all the states to ratify the constitution. So this is the compromise. It says that Congress can not pass any laws which affect slavery or any other migration issue before 1808. Congress was allowed to tax the importation of slaves.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

Note: Congress does not have the power to levy taxes between the States or exported goods. However Congress does have the power to impose tariffs on foreign nations

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

Note: No money can be spent unless it is appropriated by law, in pursuance of the Constitution, and limited to the enumerated powers of the Legislative Branch

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section 10

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Note: these are powers specifically denied to the States.

For more information on the meaning of Article 1 Legislative Branch refer to the Federalist Papers

Article II The Executive Branch


Section 1

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.

Note: This clause defines the Electoral College

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

Note: General Election day must be the same day throughout the Union

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

Note: While there are unanswered questions about the definition of what a Natural Born Citizen is, one thing remains constant. A Natural Born Citizen is a citizen that requires no law to make oneself a citizen. Citizenship can be bestowed/earned thru our Naturalization Laws. You can be a Naturalized Citizen by law but not be a Natural Born Citizen.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—”I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Note: The Oath of Office requires that the Constitution is adhered to. 

Section 2

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Note: Section 2 specifies the power of the President. He has the power to require that executive branch department heads disclose, in writing, their duties as it relates to that agency. The President has the power to pardon. and the President has the power to make recess appointments. these powers he has independent of the Congress. The power to make treaties and appointments are only with the advise and consent of the Senate

Section 3

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Note: This section explains the duties of the President and as per his Oath of Office, that he has to faithfully execute all Laws that are not in conflict with the Constitution. He is not bound to enforce Unconstitutional laws and has the power to veto such laws and send those unconstitutional laws back to Congress. As Chief Executive, it is the Presidents duty to give Congress information on the State of the Union. For more on the State of the Union Refer to How Progressives have usurped our Government

Section 4

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III The Judiciary Branch

supreme court

Section 1

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Note: Judges can be impeached by the House of Representatives for bad behavior which includes political motivation and non adherence to the Constitution.

Section 2

The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;— between a State and Citizens of another State,—between Citizens of different States,—between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

Note: Important to acknowledge that “under their authority”, refers to the Constitution and the Laws of the United States, made in pursuance of the Constitution. The Judicial Branch has ZERO ability to create laws from their rulings. There is no power given to the Judicial to interpret the Constitution. Their function is to compare a law or crime against the strict meaning of the Constitution.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

Note: Congress can not hold the family of a person convicted of treason responsible or accountable. Nor can Congress extend punishment upon that family if the person convicted of treason dies

Article IV

protect our borders

Section 1

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section 3

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

Note: The Federal Government is charged with making sure our representative government maintains its accountability to the governed, securing our both National and State borders from foreign invasion as well as from domestic violence

Article V


The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Note: There are only 2 ways to amend the Constitution. #1.   2/3rds of both chambers of Congress proposes an Amendment which would then require ratification from the legislatures of 3/4ths of our States. #2.  Requires an application from 2/3rds of our State legislatures therefore mandating that Congress calls the Convention. It would also require ratification from 3/4ths of the State legislatures or Conventions in 3/4ths of the States. Congress maintains power over which mode of ratification will be used.

Note: The 17th Amendment actually deprives the State its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

Article VI


All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any state to the Contrary notwithstanding.

Note: The Authority of the United States IS the US Constitution

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Note: Our Government can be kept in check and within the limited bounds of our Constitution, if our elected Congress members, Executive and Judicial Officers both at the Federal and State levels upheld their Oath of Office.

Article VII


The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

DONE in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In WITNESS whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

Go. Washington-

Presidt and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire: John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman.

Massachusetts: Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King.

Connecticut: Wm. Saml. Johnson, Roger Sherman.

New York: Alexander Hamilton.

New Jersey: Wil: Livingston, David Brearley, Wm. Paterson, Jona. Dayton.

Pennsylvania: B. Franklin, Robt. Morris, Tho: Fitzsimons, James Wilson, Thomas Mifflin, Geo. Clymer, Jared Ingersoll, Gouv: Morris.

Delaware: Geo: Read, John Dickinson, Jaco: Broom, Gunning Bedford, Jun’r, Richard Bassett.

Maryland: James M’Henry, Danl Carroll, Dan: of St. Thos. Jenifer.

Virginia: John Blair, James Madison, Jr.

North Carolina: Wm. Blount, Hu. Williamson, Rich’d Dobbs Spaight.

South Carolina: J. Rutledge, Charles Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Pierce Butler.

Georgia William: Few, Abr. Baldwin

Attest: William Jackson, Secretary.

Note: These were citizens that understood what it means to have Liberty & Freedom. They put together this structure of government to protect us from those that would want to use government against us.